In the presented article, based on the detailed analysis of scientific sources and many years of own experience in production of the probiotic foods, the definition of “probiotics” in cosmetics, as well as the definition of “living” and “probiotic” cosmetics is proposed.
The skin is a complex barrier organ that has a symbiotic relationship between microbial communities and host tissue via complex signals provided by the innate and the adaptive immune systems. It is constantly exposed to various endogenous and exogenous factors – physical, chemical, bacterial and fungal, as well as the effects of the hormonal disorders, which affect this balanced system potentially leading to inflammatory skin conditions comprising infections, allergies or autoimmune diseases. In opposition to the gut and stool microbiome, which has been studied and described for many years, investigations on the skin or scalp microbiome lasts only for last 10 years. Therefore, the screening of effective means of correcting and/or maintaining the human normoflora for the preservation of healthy skin microbiome today is an urgent task.
It is well known that probiotics and prebiotics are helpful for specific disorders in the human body. Skeptics wonder: can the probiotics and prebiotics be scientifically applied in cosmetics? Different clinical studies indicated that they have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly, which can be considered from different aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potential in accelerating wound healing, in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, allergic inflammation or skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage and cosmetics products. Therefore, some firms are already incorporating bacteria and/or their lysates into skin creams with the promise of «rebalancing» the community of bacteria that live in the human body and delivering healthier, more radiant-looking skin. However, such parameters as the type of probiotic, the form in which it is added to the formulation (living bacteria, lysates, etc.) and the recommended concentrations of these ingredients in cosmetic products that are safe and effective are still not defined. Due to currently widespread use of probiotic cosmetic products in the world beauty industry, the concept of "probiotic" in the cosmetic industry requires a clear definition.
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