The article analyzes the role of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially omega-3 series in humans and animals. The biosynthesis of essential PUFA in humans and animals is very limited, so they must be consumed with food (feed). Тhe ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA is very important. Biomembranes of animal cells contain about 30% PUFA with a ratio of ω-6/ ω-3 1-2. As this ratio increases, the physicochemical properties of biomembranes and the functional activity of their receptors change. The regulatory function of essential PUFA is that in the body under the action of oxygenase enzymes (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase) are formed extremely active hormone-like substances (eicosanoids and docosanoids), which affect a number of physiological processes: inflammation, immunity, metabolism. Moreover, ω-6 PUFA form eicosanoids, which have pro-inflammatory, immunosuppressive properties, and ω-3 PUFAs form eicosanoids and docosanoids, which have anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory properties. Deficiency of essential PUFA, and especially ω-3 PUFA, leads to impaired development of the body and its state of health, which are manifestations of avitaminosis F. Prevention and treatment of avitaminosis F is carried out with drugs that contain PUFA. To create new, more effective vitamin F preparations, it is necessary to reproduce the model of vitamin F deficiency. An experimental model of vitamin F deficiency in white rats kept on a fat –free diet with the addition of coconut oil, which is almost completely free of unsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids make up almost 99 % of all fatty acids was developed. The total content of ω-6 PUFA (sum of linoleic and arachidonic acids), the content of ω-3 PUFA (α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) in neutral lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol esters) defined. Тhe content of ω-6 PUFA under the influence of coconut oil decreased by 3.3 times, and the content of ω-3 PUFA - by 7.5 times. Тhe influence of coconut oil, the content of ω-6 PUFA decreased by 2.1 times, and the content of ω-3 PUFA - by 2.8 times. The most strongly reduces the content of ω-3 PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic, coconut oil, starting from 5 %. Consumption of FFD with a content of 15 % coconut oil reduces the content of eicosapentaenoic acid to zero, ie we have an absolute deficiency of one of the most important essential PUFAs, which determined the presence of vitamin F deficiency.
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