This article describes main methods of using the method of microwave treatment in food industry and in grain processing in particular. Main principles of this technology as well as using this technological approach for popping grain have been considered. Scientific works aimed at researching possibility of using microwave radiation for preparation of popped grains have been reviewed. Factors influencing the process of preparing popped grain have been considered; these factors include morphological structure and chemical composition of grains. Sorghum is one of the main food crops in the world agriculture (especially in such countries as India, PRC, Ethiopia, Morocco, Sudan) taking agriculture areas of about 50 million hectares. Popularity of growing sorghum in Ukraine can be explained in particular through its ability to produce high yields in warm and dry climatic conditions. Human organism does not perform
absorption of nutrients from sorghum in full amount due to the fact that there are kafirins in endosperm of sorghum and these substances agglutinate starch granules. That is why a peculiar attention in this article has been paid to influence of microwave treatment on digestibility of sorghum starch and proteins. The goal of carrying out scientific researches consisted in defining parameters of microwave radiation influence on the process of popping sorghum grains depending on grain particle size (fractional composition) as well as in developing a technological scheme of popping sorghum.
The process of microwave treatment of sorghum grains has been researched. Microwave processing of grains was performed in microwave oven with working frequency of 2,450 MHz and the following levels of power were applied: 450, 600, 700 W with exposure time 120–150 s. Grain sorghum “Fulgus” was used for carrying out the research. Effect of microwave radiation on the start of the popping process and on yield of popped sorghum previously divided into two fractions has been determined. In addition to this influence of microwave treatment on increasing the volume of coarse fraction and fine fraction sorghum grains has been determined. A technological scheme of producing popped sorghum with using microwave treatment has been developed. This
technological scheme includes the following operations: cleaning grains from various contaminations, calibration, conditioning, microwave treatment, cooling, optical sorting, packing. The technological process within the developed technological scheme has been described and a clear sequence of operations for preparation of popped sorghum has been provided. The proposed
technological scheme has two variants of execution. The first variant consists in using air-sieve separators and concentrators or combined machines for cleaning and calibration of sorghum grains. The second variant consists in combining procedures of cleaning and calibration into a single stage with a help of up-to-date technological equipment.